Glossary of terms

ADIT - horizontal mine entrance or access passage.
BACKFILL - to fill an abandoned mine cavity with waste rock.
BED - layer of rock in the ground.
BELLPIT - shallow shaft with one or two chambers at bottom.
BOREHOLE (1) hole drilled with a hollow tube that removes sections of rock for identification.
BOREHOLE (2) - narrow hole sunk as a water supply.
CAP - covering to a shaft.
CAVE - natural cavity.
CHAMBER - underground cavity either natural or mined.
CONDUIT - underground passage for conducting water.
CROSS CUT - access passage linking two parallel adits.
DAY FALL - where mine workings have collapsed at the surface.
DIP - angle at which strata differs from the horizontal.
DRIFT - same as ADIT.
FACE - furthest working part of a mine.
FAULT - large fissure which displaces strata.
GALLERY - horizontal working area in coal or iron mine.
GROTTO - artificially decorated chamber.
GRUB - to remove woods or field boundaries.
INFILL - material thrown into a shaft to fill it up.
JOINT - fissure in rock, especially chalk.
KILN - structure which roasts chalk or limestone to make lime.
KNAPPING - to hit a flint so that flakes break off.
LEVEL - same as ADIT.
MINE - cavity excavated to extract rock or mineral.
MINE AGENT - man in charge of a mine.
ORE - rock in which a metal occurs.
OUTCROP - point where strata is exposed at the surface.
PILLAR - section of rock left to support the roof.
ROCK SHELTER - small cavity in a cliff face.
SALLY PORT - door for defenders to make surprise attacks from.
SEAM - layer of coal or iron in the ground.
SHAFT - vertical entrance to a mine or well. Separate shafts can be sunk for pumping, ventilation or winding up rock.
SMELTING - process of roasting ore to product metal.
SPOIL - waste rock brought to the surface and left in heaps.
STEINING - shaft or well lining made of bricks or flints.
STRATA - same as BED.
SUMP (1) - drainage hole at the base of a shaft
SUMP (2) - cave passage flooded to the roof.
TIMBERING - wooden roof props in levels or walls in shafts.
TRAMWAY - rails laid for wagons to be pushed along.
TUB - mine wagon.
UNDERCUT - to excavate underneath rock so that it fails down.
VEIN - underground deposit, usually of ore.
WINDLASS - small hand winch for winding in shafts.
WORKINGS general term for all mine passages.